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Done at Rome on October 26, 1961


Article 1: Safeguard of Copyright Proper
Article 2: Protection given by the Convention. Definition of National Treatment
Article 3: Definitions: (a) Performers; (b) Phonogram; (c) Producers of Phonograms; (d) Publication; (e) Reproduction; (f) Broadcasting; (g) Rebroadcasting
Article 4: Performances Protected. Points of Attachment for Performers
Article 5: Protected Phonograms: 1. Points of Attachment for Producers of Phonograms; 2. Simultaneous Publication; 3. Power to exclude certain Criteria
Article 6: Protected Broadcasts: 1. Points of Attachment for Broadcasting Organizations; 2. Power to Reserve
Article 7: Minimum Protection for Performers: 1. Particular Rights; 2. Relations between Performers and Broadcasting Organizations
Article 8: Performers acting jointly
Article 9: Variety and Circus Artists
Article 10: Right of Reproduction for Phonogram Producers
Article 11: Formalities for Phonograms
Article 12: Secondary Uses of Phonograms
Article 13: Minimum Rights for Broadcasting Organizations

The Contracting States, 

Moved by the desire to ensure in all countries copyright protection of literary, scientific and artistic works, 

Convinced that a system of copyright protection appropriate to all nations of the world and expressed in a universal convention, additional to, and without impairing international systems already in force, will, ensure respect for the rights of the individual and encourage the development of literature, the sciences and the arts, 

Persuaded that such a universal copyright system will facilitate a wider dissemination of works of the human mind and increase international under-standing, 

Have resolved to revise the Universal Copyright Convention as signed at Geneva on 6 September 1952 (hereinafter called `the 1952 Convention'), and consequently, 

Have agreed as follows: 

Article I 

Each Contracting State undertakes to provide for the adequate and effective protection of the rights of authors and other copyright proprietors in literary, scientific and artistic works, including writings, musical, dramatic and cinematographic works, and paintings, engravings and sculpture. 

Article II 

1. Published works of nationals of any Contracting State and works first published in that State shall enjoy in each other Contracting State the same protection as that other State accords to works of its nationals first published in its own territory, as well as the protection specially granted by this Convention. 

2. Unpublished works of nationals of each Contracting State shall enjoy in each other Contracting State the same protection as that other State accords to unpublished works of its own nationals, as well as the protection specially granted by this Convention. 

3. For the purpose of this Convention any Contracting State may, by domestic legislation, assimilate to its own nationals any person domiciled in that State. 



Article 1: Establishment of a Union
Article 2: Protected Works: 1. “Literary and artistic works”; 2. Possible requirement of fixation; 3. Derivative works; 4. Official texts; 5. Collections; 6. Obligation to protect; beneficiaries of protection; 7. Works of applied art and industrial designs; 8. News
Article 2bis: Possible Limitation of Protection of Certain Works: 1. Certain speeches; 2. Certain uses of lectures and addresses; 3. Right to make collections of such works
Article 3: Criteria of Eligibility for Protection: 1. Nationality of author; place of publication of work; 2. Residence of author; 3. “Published” works; 4. “Simultaneously published” works
Article 4: Criteria of Eligibility for Protection of Cinematographic Works, Works of Architecture and Certain Artistic Works
Article 5: Rights Guaranteed: 1. and 2. Outside the country of origin; 3. In the country of origin; 4. “Country of origin”
Article 6: Possible Restriction of Protection in Respect of Certain Works of Nationals of Certain Countries Outside the Union: 1. In the country of the first publication and in other countries; 2. No retroactivity; 3. Notice
Article 6bis: Moral Rights: 1. To claim authorship; to object to certain modifications and other derogatory actions; 2. After the author's death; 3. Means of redress
Article 7: Term of Protection: 1. Generally; 2. For cinematographic works; 3. For anonymous and pseudonymous works; 4. For photographic works and works of applied art; 5. Starting date of computation; 6. Longer terms; 7. Shorter terms; 8. Applicable law; “comparison” of terms
Article 7bis: Term of Protection for Works of Joint Authorship